Russian text (Ðóññêèé òåêñò)
Mammoth Museum of Academy of Sciences of SR (Ya)
The mammoth museum was created in 1991 as the
scientific and cultural centre on studying of mammoth faunae and its
environment in a glacial age. It is located in the capital of Sakha
Republic (Yakutia) - Yakutsk. In 1995 the museum became the part of
Academy of sciences of SR(Ya). It is the only in the world specialized
museum, where interesting and unique paleontologic exhibits are stored,
studied and shown.
In bowels of Yakutia is found out a significant part of all unique finds of mammoths known in the world, woolly rhinoceroses, bisons, musk oxes, cave lions and others animal of bygone epoch. Among them a first-ever skeleton of the mammoth (mammoth of Adams) found in 1799 in delta of the river Lena; well kept corpse of the mammoth from the river Berezovka - the right inflow of the river Kolyma (it is dug out by expedition of the Petersburg Academy of sciences under the direction of 0. F.Gerts in 1901-1902) . In later time in various areas of Yakutia were found a full skeleton of Churapchinsky rhinoceros with remains of skin and wool (1972), a skeleton of Shandrinsky mammoth, one-and-a-half-year-old mylakhchinsky bison with the rests of soft fabrics and wool. (1971) and others. Due to long-term efforts of all generations of scientists, these finds became invaluable museum pieces decorating halls of many Russian museums. One of such exhibits - a full skeleton of the mammoth - is exposed in a museum of natural history in Paris. Studying fossils of ancient animals, contents of an intestinal path, it is possible to judge the reasons of their extinction, about a climate and flora of bygone epoch, laws of evolutionary ancient development and the Mammoth - a large gregarious animal from family of elephant. The ancestral home of mammoths is considered to be Africa. Height of a body - 3-4 meters, weight - 5-6 tons. The scalp of brown color reached 1,2 meters. Skin thickness was up to 2 sm and long hair with rich soft underfur reliably protected the mammoth from fierce colds. Tusks of old individuals grew up to 4 meters with weight of more than 100 kg. The mammoth - a herbivore, per day ate up to half a ton vegetative food. Life expectancy of the mammoth - 70-80 years. Fruitfulness of this mammal was very low, sexual ability came by 11-15 years. The area of mammoths and their faunae (a bison, woolly rhinoceros, musk ox etc.) was extremely extensive. The bone rests of these representatives of ancient animals are found almost on all territory of northern hemisphere of the Earth. Especially often and in good condition they are found in Eastern Siberia. It is explained by cold climatic conditions and such natural phenomenon of these places, as permafrost (held down bowels through hundreds meters).
By researchers it is established, that ancestors of the mammoth and fauna accompanying it have appeared in the north more than one million years ago and have existed during all glacial age. In their beginning the climate was moderately cold, there was a formation of permafrost. Then during all period there was the gradual cold snap, interrupted by short epoch of interglacial warming. About 20 thousand years ago during congelations was established very cold sharply continental climate, developed tundras with plentiful grassy vegetation. Mammoths and their fauna well adapted to such extreme environment, having reached in this period the greatest development. Investigating various aspects of a history of life of mammoths, we deeply learn life of a paleolithic person as they closely adjoined among themselves in the given historical epoch. Integral part of research work of the museum is search and excavation of burial places of mammoths and accompanying fauna. Due to field expeditions of last years valuable paleontologic finds - the rests of a corpse of bi-monthly mammoth child with the kept head, trunk and a leg (1990), a part of skin of a head of the mammoth with an eye-socket and an ear, legs of this giant (1994-1997) are revealed, etc.
The mammoth museum develops fruitful international cooperation. With experts of France, Germany, Great Britain, Japan and other countries joint scientific researches are conducted, expeditions on burial places of mammoths are organized. The long-term project with the Japanese experts of participation in the international scientific project " Revival of the mammoth " with ultimate goal - "revival" of the mammoth - now is made. The first works in the given direction are carried out.
Being a member of the International council of museums at UNESCO the museum contacts with a number of museums of the world. Exhibitions " Mammoths of Yakutia " were successfully shown in France, Germany, Japan and Republic Korea. Rather perspective direction of activity of the museum in the near future the organization of ecotourism should be. Not only scientists, but also amateurs of productive leisure will have a rare opportunity to visit earlier inaccessible Arctic areas of Yakutia, where in far times numerous herds of mammoths wandered, woolly rhinoceroses, bisons and other kinds of ancient animals. Welcome! Coordinates for connection:
Mammoth Museum of the Academy of sciences of Sakha Republic (Yakutia),
48 Kulakovsky st., Yakutsk, Russia, 677891
ÈÍÒÅÐÍÅÒ ßÃÓ, 2000.
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